The latest advanced therapies can be an alternative to traditional therapies for breast cancer patients. These therapies are Cryosurgical Inflation (CSA), Seed Knife Therapy (Brachytherapy), Percutaneous Ablation, Combined Immunotherapy and Targeted Chemotherapy.
1. Cryosurgical Inflation (CSA):
Cryosurgery is an important ablation technique for tumors. It destroys tumors through freezing and thawing cycles. The destructive effects of Cryosurgery on tumors have two major consequences, one immediate, the other delayed. The immediate mechanism is the detrimental effect of freezing and thawing of cells. The delay mechanism is the progressive failure of the microcirculation; ultimately, vascular stasis becomes an important cause of tumor tissue destruction. When the temperature drops below -40oC, ice crystals may form inside the cells. When it happens, cell death is almost certain. During cryosurgery, progressive microcirculation failure occurs due to cascade of events: destruction of endothelial layer causing vessel walls to become porous, interstitial edema, platelet aggregation, microthrombii, and eventually vascular congestion and destruction. It was theorized that the host’s immune system was sensitized during cryosurgery, the tumor was destroyed by cryosurgery. The immune system destroyed any primary tumor tissue that was not damaged by cryosurgery and metastases after chromosurgery. This response was called the “cryo-immunological response”.
2. Seed Knife Therapy (Brachytherapy)
Seed Knife Therapy (Brachytherapy) is used for the treatment of breast cancer, Implantation of seeds with iodine-125 or palladium-103 seeds (brachytherapy) is a very effective treatment for patients with cancer. No brachytherapy requires no surgical incision, gives patients a shorter recovery period, and is less likely to have worrying side effects. For example, for prostate cancer, brachytherapy is an outpatient procedure and most patients go home on the same day for treatment. They may return to their normal activities a few days after treatment. Seed implantation only takes 45 minutes to 1 hour. Implantation of seeds with iodine-125 seed gives a lower radiation dose rate than palladium-103. Because iodine-125 in your body works longer than palladium-103, it is very suitable for treating slow-growing tumors, such as most prostate cancers. The 125 seeds of iodine – which have a half-life of 59 days – release a short course of gamma ray. The seeds implanted in cancerous masses and nearby tissues radiate targeted cells and eventually destroy cancer. This prevents the whole body from being exposed to unnecessary radiation.
3. Percutaneous inflation
Thermal injury to cells starts at 42? Only 8 minutes at 46? Is it necessary to kill malignant cells, and 51? Can be fatal after just 2 minutes. At temperatures above 60? Intrauterine proteins are rapidly denatured (killed), cell membranes are destroyed by the dissolution and melting of lipid diuretics, and finally, cell death is inevitable. Radio frequency ablation (RFA) is a new technique for treating tumors that are localized to certain organs. A needle electrode is advanced in the targeted tombs by percutaneous, laparoscopic or open (operation) route. The RF energy causes the tissue around the top of the probe to heat up to a high temperature above which cells break apart and die. To eradicate all cancerous cells, the aim is to place the probes in such a way that they destroy the entire tumor plus a sufficient “edge” of non-cancerous tissue around it.
4. Combined Immunotherapy
Immunotherapy, also known as CIC – combined immunotherapy for cancer – is now a focus for cancer researchers. Over the past 10 years there has been an increased understanding of immunomodulation and an appreciation of the mechanisms by which tumors escape their notification. This has led to the development of promising new anti-cancer strategies, such as immunotherapy, aimed at increasing the body’s natural immune functions against cancer cells.
5. Targeted Chemotherapy
Targeted Chemotherapy can be an alternative because it leaves the least side effect compared to traditional chemotherapy. Targeted therapies are drugs or other substances designed to inhibit the growth and spread of cancer by preventing the direct separation or destruction of cancer cells. While standard chemotherapy affects all cells in the body, targeted therapy directs drugs or other specially created substances (e.g., proteins of the immune system developed in the laboratory) to attack cancer cells. The goal of targeted therapy is to disrupt genes or proteins involved in tumor growth to block the spread of the disease.
By targeting specific molecules responsible for the growth, progression and spread of cancer, targeted therapy differs from standard chemotherapy, which systematically attacks the disease and, therefore, harms healthy cells. Because targeted therapy specifically detects cancer cells, it is designed to reduce the damage to healthy cells, which may have fewer side effects than standard chemotherapy.
Targeted therapies serve as the basis of precision medicine, which uses information about tumor DNA profile to identify additional treatment options. Adaptive treatments focus on abnormalities found in the DNA profile of each tumor. This innovation represents a shift from traditional treatments designed for the average patient, towards more accurate therapies.
Targeted therapy is an emerging science, and not all types of cancer can be treated with targeted drugs. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved a number of targeted therapies for use in cancer treatment, including hormone therapies, signal transduction inhibitors, apoptosis inducers, gene expression modulators, angiogenesis inhibitors and toxin delivery molecules.